Friday, December 13, 2013

Simple Long Polling Example with JavaScript and jQuery

There are many reasons you might need to poll a web server. Recently, one of our Dashboard Gauge Suite customers needed to poll sales data from his company's data warehouse and update his executive dashboard with the fresh data.
But you could be doing something different too. Maybe you're pulling your company's QC data so you can give your leadership team a visual of how each group is managing defect counts.
Advanced JavaScript Long Polling Techniques (Server Push Techniques)
These two scenarios each have three things in common. First, a passion to display data in a beautiful and familiar way. Second, a desire to update each gauge without refreshing the page. Finally, each needs a smart and efficient way to poll their respective servers.
Here, we're going to accomplish each commonality with an emphasis on polling options and techniques:

A History of Polling

Realtime web applications have been with us for quite some time now. To the end user, these applications feel responsive and fluid. Gmail is (arguably) one of the most major applications to popularize this technique. JavaScript is at the heart here.
Have you ever been in the middle of replying to an email, when (suddenly) you're notified the person has sent you another followup? That's the perfect example of polling - sometimes referred to as server-push or comet technology.

A Tale of Two Polling Techniques

Traditional Polling

The setInterval Technique
Now, if you needed to poll your web service, your first instinct might be to do something like this with JavaScript and jQuery:
setInterval(function(){
    $.ajax({ url: "server", success: function(data){
        //Update your dashboard gauge
        salesGauge.setValue(data.value);
    }, dataType: "json"});
}, 30000);
Here, we have the poll ready to execute every thirty (30) seconds. This code is pretty good. It's clean and asynchronous. You're feeling confident. Things will work (and they will), but with a catch. What if it takes longer than thirty (30) seconds for the server to return your call?
That's the gamble with using setInterval. Lag, an unresponsive server or a whole host of network issues could prevent the call from returning in its allotted time. At this point, you could end up with a bunch of queued Ajax requests that won't necessarily return in the same order.
The setTimeout Technique
If you find yourself in a situation where you're going to bust your interval time, then a recursive setTimeout pattern is recommend:
(function poll(){
   setTimeout(function(){
      $.ajax({ url: "server", success: function(data){
        //Update your dashboard gauge
        salesGauge.setValue(data.value);

        //Setup the next poll recursively
        poll();
      }, dataType: "json"});
  }, 30000);
})();
Using the Closure technique, poll becomes a self executing JavaScript function that runs the first time automatically. Sets up the thirty (30) second interval. Makes the asynchronous Ajax call to your server. Then, finally, sets up the next poll recursively.
As you can see, jQuery's Ajax call can take as long as it wants to. So, this pattern doesn't guarantee execution on a fixed interval per se. But, it does guarantee that the previous interval has completed before the next interval is called.
Both techniques suffer from the same flaw - a new connection to the server must be opened each time the $.ajax method is called. To make that connection, your realtime app must gear up and battle through hoards of competing network traffic to make it to your server.
What if you could just keep the connection open?

Long Polling - An Efficient Server-Push Technique

If you could simply keep the connection open, then your application would see faster response times and appear more responsive. That's a good thing and that's where Long Polling comes in:
(function poll(){
    $.ajax({ url: "server", success: function(data){
        //Update your dashboard gauge
        salesGauge.setValue(data.value);

    }, dataType: "json", complete: poll, timeout: 30000 });
})();
Complete: A function to be called when the request finishes (after success and error callbacks are executed). In this case, we call our JavaScript poll function and restart the polling process.
Timeout: Set a timeout (in milliseconds) for the request. The timeout period starts at the point the $.ajax call is made. Here, we set the timeout to 30 seconds. This means our poll function won't get called again until both the ajax call is complete and (at-least) thirty (30) seconds have passed.
As you can see, the Long Polling technique combines the best-case traditional polling with persistent remote server connections. The term Long Polling itself is short for long-held HTTP request.
Applications built with Long Polling in mind attempt to offer realtime interaction, using a persistent or long-lasting HTTP connection between the server and the client.
The self executing JavaScript poll function combined with jQuery Ajax's repeating timeout interval means this is a very efficient server-push technique.
See, comments for further discussion on this technique. Thanks!

What's next? HTML5 WebSockets.

These types of Ajax Push techniques set the foundation for HTML5 WebSockets. With HTML5 WebSockets, we'll be able to see true Server Push styles of application development. This will make for truly responsive web applications.
Lately, I've been recommending Socket.IO for just such the occasion. Think of Socket.IO as the jQuery of HTML5 WebSockets.
No two browser vendors will implement the WebSockets protocol exactly alike. Socket.IO tries to normalize those differences. Here's how you might use Socket.IO with our Dashboard Gauge Suite:
<script src="/socket.io/socket.io.js"></script>
<script>
  var socket = io.connect("http://localhost");
  socket.on('sales', function (data) {
    //Update your dashboard gauge
    salesGauge.setValue(data.value);

    socket.emit('profit', { my: 'data' });
  });
</script>
In order to provide realtime connectivity on every browser, Socket.IO selects the most capable transport at runtime, without it affecting the API. If WebSockets are available, it will use WebSockets.
If WebSockets aren't available, Socket.IO will select the next best transport including: Adobe Flash Socket or Ajax Polling. So having a solid understanding of JavaScript Long Polling examples is crucial.
We're still some time off before WebSockets will be universally and consistently supported. Until then, the jQuery Long Polling technique is a best-in-class solution for realtime server communications.

Eat, Pray and Code

Long polling addresses the weakness of traditional polling by keeping the connection to your server open. Keeping the connection to the server open eliminates the travel time from client to server and thus, significantly reduces the issues surrounding network latency.
If you're looking for a beautiful suite of dashboard gauges for your next business intelligence project, I encourage you to check out our Dashboard Gauge Suite. And if you need an accompanying Polling solution, please do give the jQuery Long Polling solution a try.
We also sell a beautiful set of JavaScript Charts in our JavaScript ChartsSuite. It's easy to get started, with a powerful API when you need it.

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